Capital of the Italian Republic, with a current population of 2,776,362 Rome is the most inhabited and the biggest city in Italy with a territorial size of 1287,60 km².
Lies on the Tiber river and is an important historical and cultural birth place, and center of Christendom as it houses within its border the sovereign state, the Vatican City.
Throughout his long history of almost three thousand years, Rome was the first great metropolis of the world, on a documentary it was cited that at the time of the Roman empire, there were one million people living there.
It is considered one of the most outstanding ancient civilizations that influenced modern society, architecture, art, philosophy, customs, literature, language, religion and culture.
Rome was as well the capital of the Roman Empire during their long reign and finally, the capital of the Papal state during the renaissance.
In the narrative regarding the origin of Rome, ancient historians tend to mix historical fact with legends for that reason it is not easy to distinguish facts and fiction.
Which, spontaneously induce them to connect its beginnings with strange and wondrous episodes as that of the wolf, nursing the twins Romulus and Remus, the future founders of Rome.
The ancient city of Rome stood not in the Tiber valley, but on the hills, The famous seven hills: Palatine, Capitoline, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Aventine and Celio.
That bulge unevenly into the valley during the empire, the city overstepped more and more on the lower plane until it covered the whole of the campus Martius that lay on the broad bend of the river down the Vatican hill.
These hills throughout these centuries were sequentially flattened and the valleys and troughs that separated them were partially filled; and the outcome is that the majority of the hills are no longer noticeable, except for the Palatine and the Aventine hills.
Today, landmarks and legacy of the once mighty Roman empire occupy the area of these famous seven hills, for instance, in the Palatine lies a ruin that was built by ancient Romans and is the most antique part of the city; the site is now an open-air museum rich in archeological artifacts.
Narrative has it that Rome had its beginnings on the Palatine. In fact, contemporary excavations have shown that there were populations living there as early as 1000 BC.
It was a village surrounded by swamps and small, from there; villagers can manage to control the flow of the Tiber river, using its waters to their advantage. It was the first urban village of Rome, build on the top of the hill for strategic reasons and stood there ever since.
In the Capitoline hill, now lies the Plaza of Campidoglio, a Michael Angelo design and project. A bronze statue of Marcus Aurelius is as well collocated in front of the building across the plaza. In Campidoglio, furthermore, resides in the local government of Rome.
The Celio hill is much broader and prominent, approximately 2 km. Long and 400 to 500 meters spacious, and a vast plateau separates Celio from resting hills the Esquiline, the Quirinal and the Viminal.
It is on this area that the Roman Emperor Titus Flavius Vespasian, around 72 A.D ordered the construction of the “Ampiteatro Flavio” famously known as the “Coliseum."
It took eight years to build and in 80 A.D; the inauguration took place.
The amphitheatre was used for live shows of reenactment of famous battles, Dramas and comedy, hunting competitions and other public events but most spectacularly it was used by Gladiators fight to death.
Narratives designated the Coliseum as a place of martyrdom for early Christians, as they were ordered to renounce their Christian faith or be thrown in the middle of wild beast.
Roman empire architectural concepts and principles were applied on the structure of the building, the complexity of building systems were based on wrap-around bids, curves.
And of their classical inventions such as the arches and vaults are linked together in a close structural relationship.
The Aventine is one of the seven hills on which Rome was established, located on the southern part.
This is a hill of more or less trapezoidal, from steep slopes, that touches the Tiber river. Among the seven hill, it was more isolated and more laborious get at, to the east, via a saddle, is connected to another small hill, called Saxum and then "Small Aventine."
It is now an elegant and luxurious residential zone, rich with Roman architectural legacy.
And finally, on the northern side, is the rest of the seven famous hills of Rome, the Esquiline, the Viminal and the Quirinal.
Esquiline has the highest peak and the most vast; it is made up of three smaller hills; Opium in the southern sector, the Fagutal (Latin Fagutal,) In the west, bounding the Velia, and the Cispio in the northern part, where in presently stands the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore.
The Viminal hill on other hands is the smallest; It owes its name to a tall shrub or somewhat a small tree, that grows to a height of three of six meters which at that time it covered the slopes the “Salix Viminalis“.
It’s been annexed to the city proper for the pleasure of the sixth King of Rome Servius Tullius. Later, between 298 and 305 AD, the “Terme (Baths)” were built.
However, in the Renaissance, at the request of Pope Pius IV the Baths of Diocletian was transformed by Michelangelo and built the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli in 1561.
Other important buildings that are located on the hill are; the Opera house of Rome built in 1879. The Museum of the Central Institute of Pathology of Alfonso Gallo And finally, the hill of Quirinal.
And the Viminale Palace, built in 1923, where the Ministry of Interior headquarters resides.
And finally, the hill of Quirinal, the name is also synonymous with the residential house of the President of Italy, the Quirinal Palace. It was in ancient times a hill for Excellency.
The Quirinal hill is also a site to many important monuments and landmarks, such as, the church of Sant'Andrea with its famous oval, and beautiful interior of marble, stucco, and gilt decoration and was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1658-1671.
The four fountains of Borromini, The church of San Silvestro, which was described for the first time around the year 1000, rebuilt in the sixteenth and restored the front in the nineteenth century.
The area is also the location of Villa Colonna, built in the seventeenth century, in front of the Rospigliosi Palace.
The Consulta palace, which now houses the Constitutional Court, the supreme body of the Italian judiciary, and was erected by Ferdinando Fuga for Pope Clement XII, just in front of the Quirinal Palace.
There is more about Rome than just the seven famous hills.
The beauty and fascinating history of Rome Italy, attracts millions of national and international tourists every year. Having to see Rome and its splendor is an experience every body should have.